1. Explain how Plato argues that social justice is better than, and more important than, retributive justice. Why can’t retributive justice, by itself, maintain peace and order in a society?
2. Describe how Socrates argues that people who want justice for themselves and society would not want to live in a democracy.
3. Explain why, according to The Republic, a democratic country will sooner or later be controlled by a demagogue who wants to run the country like a tyranny.
4. Explain how Plato’s Allegory of the Cave suggests that only philosophy can rescue a person from being controlled by one’s own culture and its customs.
5. Define what ‘dualism’ is. Then explain how Descartes proves that he knows for certain that he is a thinking mind, with more certainty than he knows he has a body.
6. Explain how Descartes separates all reality into four basic kinds of reality in his philosophy. Be sure to provide examples of the sorts of things that exist within each kind of reality.
7. Explain how Descartes argues that philosophy can figure out that God really exists.
8. Explain whether this maxim is morally right according to Kant’s categorical imperative: “I should let my friend help me cheat on this exam, so I can get a good grade in this class.”
9. Pick one human right. For that right, explain how Kant’s Categorical Imperative can show that this human right is morally correct. Be sure to include an explanation why violating that right must be morally wrong.
10. Apply Kant’s Categorical Imperative to assemble an answer this moral question: Should everyone be ethically required to get the vaccination during a pandemic?
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