Description

Discussion : Due Jul/01

Prior to beginning work on this interactive assignment, read Chapters 1, 11, and 12 in your textbook and the Kak (2015) Lecture 16: TCP/IP Vulnerabilities: IP Spoofing and Denial-of-Service Attacks (Links to an external site.).

Transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) was designed by the United States Department of Defense to share information between researchers at different institutions across the United States. The suite of TCP/IP protocols has evolved into a network of networks that covers the globe. TCP/IP is now known as the protocol of the Internet. For your initial post, consider the scenario below.

Your organization has a TCP/IP network that covers three cities and five office locations. Your organization utilizes the following business services: virtual private networks (VPNs), Internet phone, Internet fax, intranet chatting, and emails. Your supervisor is concerned with the many hacking incidents that have been reported in the news and has put you in charge of preparing a short report of the Internet services that are used at the organization and the possible vulnerabilities of each service. Considering that your supervisor is not a technical person and has indicated that he will share your report with upper management to improve the security landscape of the organization, be sure to be clear, concise, and comprehensive in addressing all relevant areas in your report..

Create your short report within the initial post window. In your report, address each of the TCP/IP business services that is outlined above. Explain the security vulnerabilities inherent to each service that may impact the organization.

Your initial post should be a minimum of 200 words.

Assignment: Due Jul/05

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, please review Chapters 1, 11, and 12 in the textbook and view the ISM642 TCP/IP Subnetting  (Links to an external site.)video

For this assignment you will be reviewing the scenario below and then building the associated Class C TCP/IP ranges for each of the required subnets.

Andrew’s Biometrics Corp (ABC) is a new organization in downtown Dallas. It has a total of 70 employees in a building with five floors. Each floor has a wiring closet with a router connected to an Ethernet switch. All the routers are connected using a fiber backbone. The company servers with sensitive information and developers are located on the first floor. The fifth floor is the location of all the executive offices. All users are directly connected to the Ethernet switch using Category 6 cables. ABC purchased a Class C TCP/IP address (193.4.5.x), and they want to create five subnets for security reasons.

In your paper, you will explain a portion of the design of ABC’s TCP/IP network. Compute the IP range for each of the five subnets and explain the layout of the network with appropriate justifications for your plan. Access your virtual lab environment and create a diagram using Visio to visually represent the proposed network. Include the diagram as an image within your document. (The Visio diagram may be included in your assignment by means of a screenshot pasted into your document prior to submission. Assistance with capturing a screenshot of your Visio may be found at Take-a-screenshot.org (Links to an external site.).)

The Foundations of the TCP/IP Architecture paper

Weekly Lecture

Week One Lecture

The World of TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the primary communication protocol of the Internet. The name is derived from two of its most important sub-protocols – TCP and IP. TCP/IP is made up of four distinct layers namely: Application layer, Transport layer, Internet layer and, Network layer. These layers map nicely into the ISO/OSI model. TCP/IP has been designed to work over any local and wide area network.

The application layer of the TCP/IP suite of protocols like File Transfer protocol (FTP), Simple Mail transfer protocol (SMTP) and Hypertext Transfer protocol (HTTP). These application layer protocols provide the interface needed for user applications to use the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Emails for example, use the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) protocol at the application layer and many browsers support the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is another application layer protocol. This process is seamless if the interfaces are built within the application layer protocol standards. A developer has no need to worry about how his/her application gets on the network and packets are delivered between entities as long as the application interfaces with the application layer of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.

The Transport layer is a one of the most important protocols of the Internet. The Transport layer protocol is made up of two distinct sub-protocols called Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP0. These two protocols specify that type of service the data is requesting from the underlying network. TCP provides connection oriented communication with the hosts while UDP provides connectionless communication. TCP establishes handshakes using SYN and SYN FIN to establish and terminate connections during communications and allows users to exchange data.

The Transport layers also use sockets and ports to establish sessions between processes requesting service. A process that needs to communicate with another process makes itself known to TCP/IP using port numbers. Ports are numbered between 1 and 65535 and are divided into two distinct types, Well-known ports and Private ports (Ephemeral). Well-known port allocations are managed by the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). Private ports are managed by local organizations as required to support their needs.

UDP does not create a handshake but makes a best attempt to reach its intended communication partners. It has no mechanism to provide confirmation of whether a datagram has reached its destination or not. It operates much faster than TCP and is used where speed is needed and delivery of the datagrams is not critical. An example of a speed-focused protocol is Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), which is used for monitoring and management of network devices.

The IP layer of the TCP/IP suite of protocol provides addressing and routing services to network communications. Addressing uses a 4-octet addressing scheme in IPv4 or an 16-octet addressing scheme in version 6 (IPv6). IPv6 is the natural evolution of the IP protocols and has been designed to address some of the shortcomings of the original IPv4 protocol. IPv6 does not fundamentally change the security features of IPv4, which has been lacking since its original design.

IPv4 addressing scheme is designed around networks and hosts. An address is made up of a network component and a host component based on the class of the address. There are three common classes of IP addresses: A, B and C. Class A ranges from 1 and 126 in the first octet, class B ranges from 128 to 191 in the first octet, and class C has from 192 to 226 in the first octet. Each class also has a subnet mask value which specifies the subnets within the network. The subnet mask can be manipulated to divide a network into subnets based on organizational and security needs.

IPv6 uses an addressing scheme that is fundamentally different from IPv4. It consists of 128 bits as opposed to 32 bits for IPv4. The first 12 bits of an address space in IPv6 is used for a registry value, followed by an ISP prefix, and a site prefix. The last portion (116 bits) of the addressing scheme represents the interface address.

The network layer provides the underlying network for IP datagrams to flow from sources to destinations. It provides the required physical addressing for local and wide area networks. The most common specification used at the local area network is Ethernet (IEEE 802.3). A variation of this protocol is IEEE 802.11 which is used in the industry for wireless Ethernet communication. The Internet is a network of IP networks.

Every time you connect to the Internet, you are assigned an IP address (dynamic or static), which allows you to browse the Internet. You are able to connect to systems all over the world because they also support the TCP/IP protocol and have an IP address.

References

Cisco Systems. (2007). IPv6 addressing (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from https://www.cisco.com/en/US/technologies/tk648/tk8…

Kessler, G. (2014). An overview of TCP/IP protocols and the Internet (Links to an external site.). Retrieved from http://www.garykessler.net/library/tcpip.html

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